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1.  Constitution of the Cherokee Nation, 21 February 1828

Formed by a Convention of Delegates from the several Districts, at New Echota, July 1827

   We, the Representatives of the people of the Cherokee Nation in Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, ensure tranquility, promote our common welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of liberty; acknowledging with humility and gratitude the goodness of the sovereign Ruler of the Universe, in offering us an opportunity so favorable to the design, and imploring his aid and direction in its accomplishment, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Government of the Cherokee Nation.

Article 1

   Sec. 1.  The Boundaries of this nation, embracing the lands solemnly guaranteed  and reserved forever to the Cherokee Nation by the Treaties concluded with the United States . . . shall forever hereafter remain unalterably the same . . .

    Sec. 2.  The Sovereignty and Jurisdiction of this Government shall extend over the Country within the boundaries above described and the lands therein are, and shall remain, the common property of the Nation:  that the improvements made thereon, and in the possession of the citizens of the Nation, are the exclusive and indefeasible property of the citizens respectively, who made, or may rightfully be in possession of them . . . citizens of the Nation . . . shall possess no right nor power to dispose of their improvements whatever to the United States, individual States, nor to individual citizens . . .